Internal combustion engines

While many applications will transition to zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) such as battery electric or hydrogen fuel cell technologies, internal combustion engines (ICEs) will continue to serve an important role in transportation.

ICE technology will continue to advance to increase efficiency and reduce tailpipe emissions, especially in applications which are more difficult to electrify.

In the near future, this includes many off-road applications as well as certain types of on-road trucks, including Class 8. ICEs. The continued development of ICEs will include many factors, including: